Induction of in vitro cyp 19 activity has been reported in human cell lines after exposure to ATZ (Heneweer et al.
In the present study, we investigated alternative mechanisms through which ATZ may induce estrogen-like effects in amphibians.
There is also controversial evidence that ATZ affects amphibian development and metamorphosis (Coady et al.
We investigated the effects of ATZ on sexual development and metamorphosis in R.
Guelph, Ontario, Canada) was purchased locally and used to mimic ATZ input into the environment.
Analysis of water samples was performed by Environment Canada for ATZ concentrations following the protocol of Hua et al.
Metabolism of ATZ and its degradation products is a complex process resulting in multiple potential metabolites (Figure 1).
AM was frequently detected in the urine of farmer applicators, their spouses, and sometimes children, typically at the highest concentrations on the day after ATZ application (WJ Driskell, unpublished data, 1995).
The objective of our study was to evaluate multiple metabolites of ATZ in persons exposed in occupational and environmental scenarios.
Precursor Product ions Compound ion [M+H] Q C1 C2 ATZ-OH 198 86 156 69 DACT 146 79 68 62 DEAM 315 185 144 102 DIA 174 68 132 104 DEA 188 146 104 110 AM 343 214 102 172 ATZ 216 174 104 68 Abbreviations: AM, atrazine mercapturate; ATZ-OH, hydroxyatrazine; ATZ, atrazine; C1, confirmation ion 1; C2, confirmation ion 2; [M+H], pseudomolecular ion derived from atmospheric pressure chemical ionization; DACT, diaminochlorotriazine; DATM, diaminotriazine mercapturate; DEA, desethylatrazine; DEAM, desethylatrazine mercapturate; DIA, desisopropyl atrazine; Q, quantification ion.
nonoccupationally exposed individuals with documented ATZ exposure based upon detectable levels of AM in their urine) and volunteers in Georgia with no known acute exposure to ATZ.