The four-layer stack envisioned by the ARPANET
's protocol architects largely ignored the structure below the network layer, lumping all of the functions below it into a single network access layer.
Over a relatively short time the ARPANET
became an indispensable, nationwide communications network across the military R&D communities of both the U.S.
Yet while ARPANET
was never intended for email, research sharing is an essentially collaborative process and communication a necessary part of collaboration.
In 1973 the first non-US connections to the Arpanet
, the forerunner of the modern internet, were set up.
Meanwhile, another government effort, ARPANET
from the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA, later known as the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency or DARPA), was creating the beginnings of the Internet.
Was it in 1969 when the Department of Defense commissioned the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET
) to research a communication and command network that could withstand a nuclear attack?
"It started in 1969 as the ARPANET
, a network sponsored by the Department of Defense linking computers at university research facilities.
The Internet originated from ARPANET
, a large wide-area network created by the United States Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA).
Only the greenest of newbies will be surprised to learn of the Pentagon's involvement in funding ARPANET
, the Internet's precursor.
ARPA is the agency that created ARPANET
, the predecessor of the Internet.
The term Internet refers to the worldwide system of interconnected networks originally conceived of in the early 1960s and first implemented by DARPA as ARPANET
The first e-mail was sent in 1971 by Ray Tomlinson of ARPANET
(Advanced Research Projects Agency Network).