ANGPTL2 is a multifaceted protein, displaying both physiological and pathological functions (for reviews, [6, 10]).
ANGPTL2 is better acknowledged for its association with multiple chronic diseases, in particular in various types of cancers [3,27-43].
Once ANGPTL2 is secreted in the circulation, it forms multimers and exerts its cellular effects, locally or distantly, depending on the local or distant expression of ANGPTL2 receptors or binding proteins on target cells.
ANGPTL2 is abundantly expressed in white adipose tissue in mice, especially visceral adipose tissue, and circulating ANGPTL2 correlates with adiposity in humans .
We reported that in overweight patients with acute coronary syndrome, 3 months of physical training reduced significantly plasma ANGPTL2 levels independently of a weight loss: while ANGPTL2 levels were reduced by 26% in men with acute coronary syndrome, body mass, lean and fat mass, waist circumference, and BMI were not affected by the exercise training program .
Heart-Derived ANGPTL2. ANGPTL2 is abundantly expressed in the heart, and its cDNA was originally isolated from human and mouse hearts .
Kidney-Derived ANGPTL2. The first link between ANGPTL2 and kidney disease has been described in patients with diabetic glomerulopathy in whom upregulation of ANGPTL2 expression in microvascular lesions was associated with a higher prevalence of renal insufficiency .
Seven ANGPTLs have been identified to date;[sup],, one of them, ANGPTL2, has been shown to be expressed abundantly in adipose tissues and to be a key mediator linking obesity to adipose tissue inflammation and systemic insulin resistance in mice.[sup], In humans, ANGPTL2 is also closely related to adiposity and inflammation.[sup],, A recent study reported a positive association of elevated serum ANGPTL2 levels with the development of T2DM in a general population, independent of other risk factors including high sensitivity C-reactive protein levels.[sup] However, the relationship of serum ANGPTL2 levels with the risk of developing GDM has not been reported to date.
These included a combined screening for aneuploidies by measurement of the fetal crown-rump length and nuchal translucency thickness by ultrasound, and fasting glucose, hemoglobin, and ANGPTL2 were analyzed using maternal blood samples.
Plasma samples to quantify ANGPTL2 levels were obtained at the time of routine blood testing in the first visit (during the first trimester, ≤13 weeks of gestation).
Correlation coefficients between ANGPTL2 and other clinic variables were calculated using correlation index.
All ANGPTL2 concentrations were above the level required for detection (≥0.05 ng/ml).
Cases were divided into ANGPTL2 quartile using cut points defined by the distribution of ANGPTL2 among study cases (tertile 1: <2.05 ng/ml; tertile 2: 2.05–2.79 ng/ml; tertile 3: 2.80–3.45 ng/ml; and tertile 4: >3.45 ng/ml).