Thus additional 1-D engine performance screening was carried out at a selected engine speed of 1200 rpm and air-fuel equivalence ratio 1.3, varying from brake torque of 740 Nm up to 1550 Nm, by sweeping EGR rate, fuel rail pressure and injection timing, respectively, as shown in Figure 5.
The apparent heat release rate predicted by the combustion CFD was then fed back to 1-D engine modeling.
Preliminary 1-D engine modeling indicated challenges remain in selecting detailed design elements for unconventional engine concepts.
A 1-d beam element with L-shaped cross-section is sufficient to represent the attaching scheme to both the CCB tube and the body-in-white (BIW) mounting locations.
Having three 1-d beam elements will account for two attachments to the vehicle and also allow for adjusting the distance between BIW attachment locations.
The challenge for this step is to approximate the stiffness of the various structural members of the CCB using a generic 1-d beam.
For the comparative simulation study, an ordinary ground plane and a 1-D EBG ground plane having the 46-mm-width and infinite length were used.
To use the 1-D EBG ground plane for low-profile antenna applications, the input-match frequency band should also be estimated, because the dipole antenna cannot be matched well in the entire range of the bandgap frequency of the 1-D EBG ground plane.
Therefore, the 1-D SMG signal provides the potential advantage of being able to noninvasively detect muscle thickness changes at different depths or locations with a single ultrasound transducer, which effectively avoids adjacent muscle cross talk.
We demonstrated in this study that the 1-D SMG signal can be a complementary approach to surface EMG for detecting muscle activities and predicting the motions of individual skeletal muscles.
In the new 3-D model, preventing a planet-wide glaciation requires about three times more CO2 than predicted by the 1-D
models, said Wolf.
"While 1-D codes were relatively good tools for modeling many phenomena, only a 3-D approach could be used to correctly simulate the complex motions of areas like the convective outer layer of a star," says Dearborn.
Observations do not agree with the 1-D simulation of the convective core region of a star--the observations suggest that the convective region is larger than the 1-D code makes it out be, which size had been assumed since the 19th century.