Another 16 studies utilized measured or modeled levels of traffic-related air contaminants, mainly benzene (n = 8), 1,3-butadiene
(n = 2), N[O.sub.2] (n = 10), and particulate matter (PM) (n = 4).
With alkylate petrol, the proportion of 1,3-butadiene
decreases at engine loads of 100 W and 200 W.
Also, air toxics emitted by mobile sources, known as MSAT (mobile source air toxics) are identified, including: benzene, 1,3-butadiene
, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, naphthalene and diesel particulate matter (PM) (USEPA 2007).
Possible associations with even less persuasive evidence include secondhand smoke exposure, nighttime shift work (possibly through disruptions to circadian rhythm), and exposures to benzene, ethylene oxide, and 1,3-butadiene
. Exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) presents a "plausible hazard" for which few data exist.
But scientific evidence is less conclusive about other environmental factors, such as exposure to the chemicals benzene, 1,3-butadiene
and ethylene oxide, found in such common substances as tobacco smoke and gasoline fumes, ABC News reported.
Zirgler-Natta catalysts based on Nd are used for 1,3-butadiene
polymerization in industrial scale.
, ethylene oxide and vinyl halides (vinyl fluoride, vinyl chloride and vinyl bromide).
Henry's constants and infinite dilution activity coefficients of propane, propene, butane, isobutane, 1-butene, isobutene, trans-2-butene, and 1,3-butadiene
in 1-butanol and 2-butanol from (250 to 330) K.
Workers who make tires in rubber plants breathe 1,3-butadiene
The chemicals included carbon monoxide, particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, 1,3-butadiene
, benzene, dioxins, benzo(a)pyrene, and volatile organic compounds.
The highest risks were posed by carbon monoxide, caused by the burning of fuel, and 1,3-butadiene
, which is produced in the synthetic rubber manufacturing process.
According to Earthjustice, EPA data reveal that motor vehicle emissions account for anywhere between 25 to 50 percent of total yearly emissions of acetaldehyde, benzene, formaldehyde and 1,3-butadiene
. Earthjustice contends that "major" reductions in such emissions could be achieved through the use of cleaner-burning fuels, improved vehicle emission controls, a national emissions inspection program and incentives for the purchase of alternative power vehicles.
The new chemical additions include heptane, ethane, 1,3-butadiene
, trimethylbenzene, naphthalene, terpenes, acrylamide, pesticides, tetrahydrofuran, methyl tertiary butyl ether, and n-nitrosodiethylamine.
It is also expected to reduce emissions of exhaust toxics--benzene, 1,3-butadiene
, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde-by 80 percent.