The Shah rewarded the 'ulama in two additional ways.
Because for the 'ulama the line separating the two sides was primarily a religious one, these references are to Muslims and Christians.
One can see in the texts examined above that while some consensus existed among the Shi'a 'ulama regarding leadership and the conduct of legitimate war, there were also some important differences among them.
The Perso-Russian wars were the beginning of a partnership between the state and the 'ulama which continued until the end of the Qajar Dynasty.
When the state in part blamed the 'ulama for the second Perso-Russian war, the ulama blamed the state for the defeat in the war.
However, neither the 'ulama nor the state had predicted the long-term effects of the engagement of the 'ulama in these wars.
However, as early as 1804, the 'ulama of Ganjeh had declared jihad against the Russian troops who surrounded their city.
One explanation is that Mirza Issa selected the two pronouncements from the more influential 'ulama most favorable to the Shah to be included in his book.
One was a general trend of Islamic political movements not only among the 'ulama but also among laymen against secularization in the Middle East, regardless of sectarian differences.
9] Though al-Muzaffar was an 'ulama (mujtahid), his efforts can be recognized in the context of popularization of Islamic reform movements, when we see the reaction of the Shi'i religious establishment in Najaf toward Muntada, which "did not recognize the Muntada as a true madrasa" until Isfahani issued a fatwa for its recognition after several years.
Here we can shed light on the role of Shi'i 'ulama intervening onto the political stage through its history.
Al-Hizb al-Ja'fari and Munazzamat al-Shabab, both of which were founded by notable families of 'ulama in Holy Cities, might have succeeded the tradition of local politics in Shi'i society to some extent.
Litvak defined marja'iya, Supreme Exemplar, as follows; "it resulted from the development of the concept of general deputyship (niyaba 'amma) which enabled the 'ulama to claim charismatic authority inherited from and wielded on behalf of the Hidden Imam and through socio-political processes which culminated with the reinstatement of Usulism -- the rationalist school and methodology for deducing legal norms -- in the eighteenth century.
Al-Da'wa depended for its membership and activities on marja'iya in the beginning, supported by prominent 'ulama at that time.
20] In order to realize and achieve this 'objective marja'iya', or in broader terms 'marja'iya salihiya' (proper marja'iya) or 'marja'iya rashida' (true marja'iya), he proposed the establishment of new kinds of executive and planning boards for systematic ma rja'iya; establishment of various councils, through which 'ulama can accomplish their leadership; and secure the continuity of marja'iya.