They are synthesised and secreted in the form of inactive zymogens
(proenzymes) by most of cells in the human body .
will become chymosin by cleavage of the 42-amino acid propeptide at the N[H.
Caspase-3 is usually present in cells as a zymogen
(procaspase) with an inactive form of 35 KDa.
Co-localisation of zymogen
granules and lysosomes occur within the acinar cells and is seen in minutes of pancreatic injury.
Interaction Between Lipopolysaccharide and Intracellular Serine Protease Zymogen
, Factor C, from Horseshoe Crab (Tachypleus tridentatus) Hemocytes.
It also mimics ACC, sharing the granular cytoplasm, microvacuoles, and microcystic growth pattern of ACC but lacking the cytoplasmic basophilia characteristic of ACC owing to the presence of zymogen
granules [Figure 7].
This caspase 3 is a zymogen
maintained in an inactive structural conformation, by an Asp-Asp-Asp regulatory tripeptide named "safety-catch" .
Trypsinogen, like all other zymogens
, is packaged in zymogen
granules, which further retard trypsinogen activation.
As suggested by DNA sequences, MMP-9 shares homology with collagenase, which is secreted as zymogen
that can be activated by proteases or organic mercury compounds.
The acinar cells of the pancreas produce and transport a variety of chemical compounds called proenzymes which are stored in zymogen
granules that exit the body via the digestive system where the proenzymes are converted into active enzymes and assist in the digestion of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates.
The Inactive enzymes, or proenzymes, contained in pancreatic zymogen
granules are listed below along with the specific substances theey digest when activated.
Acute pancreatitis is initiated when hyperstimulation exceeds the intrapancreatic protective mechanisms that prevent trypsinogen activation or reduce the activity of trypsin: such mechanisms include enzymes stored as zymogen
granules, low intracellular ionized calcium concentrations, a pressure gradient that favors the flow from the pancreas towards the duodenum, secretion of pancreatic enzymes in an inactive form (proenzymes), and enzymes that activate the zymogen
outside the pancreas and synthesis of specific trypsin inhibitors by acinar cells (17,18).
As a key enzyme in the melanization cascade, PO is usually synthesized and released into the hemolymph as the inactive zymogen
In vertebrates and chelicerates, the initiation of the polymerization of the precursor structural protein into the fibrils of the clot involves the proteolytic activation of a soluble zymogen
Pepsin is expressed as a pro-form zymogen
pepsinogen, whose primary structure has additional 44 amino acids.