Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Firearms Training Unit, FBI Academy, Handgun Wounding
Factors and Effectiveness (Quantico, VA, July 14, 1989).
Lauderdale, Florida that the expression of TB4 after corneal (outer segment of the eye) wounding was "markedly blunted" in aged animals compared to younger animals.
5 times higher immediately after wounding (peaking at 3 times higher 24 hours after wounding) than in the aged corneas.
Laminin-5 is one of the initial adhesive proteins expressed after wounding
, is necessary for proper adhesion of certain types of mammalian cells, and is an important component of the wound healing process.
Sosne reported that: (i) TB4 increases corneal epithelial cell laminin-5 production (a substance necessary for proper cell adhesion); (ii) TB4 inhibits the transcription of many key pro-inflammatory cytokines, thus, reducing inflammation in cells covering the cornea after injury; and (iii) TB4 accelerates the healing of mouse corneas following wounding
and significantly down-regulates both inflammation and interior hemorrhaging after injury.