5 metres (rather than 6 metres) so that they can be checked easily for signs of cocoa diseases such as witches' broom
, which affects the tips of the branches.
Fungal infections - Witches' Broom
Disease and Frosty Pod - have already destroyed massive cocoa plantations in South America.
disease and frosty pod have already destroyed massive cocoa plantations in South America.
The exotically-named Witches' Broom
Disease and Frosty Pod have already devastated swathes of the South American plantations.
The winter festivals are all jumbled up in our shops with tinsel and baubles next to the witches' broom
sticks, wizards' hats and fireworks.
I first encountered the witches' broom
on a big farm in Bahia, Brazil's chocolate state (see map, page 10).
The astrophyllite was so characteristic in shape, so much like small twig broom heads, that I called it witches' broom
disease, one of the most serious threats to cacao production, was first described by Went (1904), and the fungus (C.
Diseases such as witches' broom
, (which leaves pods brown and dry) and black pod (a cousin of potato blight) thrive in the humid climate of the rainforest.
Fungal diseases -- black pod rot, frosty pod rot and witches' broom
-- have caused severe yield losses to the cacao bean crop, which totaled almost 3 million tons in 1999.
Cocoa production has fallen across Latin America, in large part because of outbreaks of witches' broom
, a fungus that destroys cocoa seeds in their pods.
com/photogallery/Oman-Lemon-research-and-production Dr Abdullah Dawood Al Zadjali, a plant pathology researcher, is a leading expert on Witches' Broom
Disease of Lime (WBDL), a disease which has devastated Omani citrus trees since it first emerged in the 1970s.
1998) stated that Paulownia witches' broom
exhibits host specificity, Gao et al.
In recent years, the cocoa industry has been threatened by a trio of devastating fungal diseases--frosty pod, black pod, and witches' broom
At the Cacao Diseases: Important Threats to Chocolate Production Worldwide symposium members of the American Phytopathological Society, Canadian Phytopathological Society, and the Mycological Society of America listened to experts warn of the grave threat to cocoa plants posed by three deadly diseases: black pod, frosty pod, and witches' broom