and butterfly weed were significantly more abundant in Managed sites than either Disturbed or Abandoned.
Although there are many other factors that determine if a prescribed burn will be performed, this approach would allow managers to assess site priority when the goal is to increase wild lupine
The primary food of Karner blue larvae is wild lupine
(Lupinus perennis), which requires open to partially shaded areas such as oak savanna to survive.
Its decline is related to loss and modification of savanna and barrens habitats where its larval host plant, wild lupine
, Lupinus perennis, occurs (Schweitzer, 1994).
In Wisconsin, the butterfly lives in utility and roadway rights-of-way, abandoned agricultural fields, forest lands, military training areas, and remnant barrens, savannas, and prairies that support wild lupine
As larvae, the butterfly's sole food plant is wild lupine
(Lupinus perennis), but the adults feed on nectar from a number of flowering plants.
Because the site for the new hangar contained some open habitat that had not been specifically surveyed for butterflies or wild lupine
, the Karner blue's food plant, the FWS recommended that such surveys be completed before construction begins.