Papilio troilus (Family Papilionidae) protects itself from potential predators with bright warning coloration
and startling "eyespots" thought to remind migratory birds of tropical snakes found in their winter haunts.
Nevertheless, this aggregative behavior may increase the effectiveness of warning coloration
in the same way by more efficiently signaling chemical defenses to predators.
They are not deterred by the warning coloration and nor by the stings.
So against the bee-eaters the warning coloration does not seem to be -- or bee -- that effective.
The effect of experience and novelty on avian feeding behaviour with reference to the evolution of warning coloration
These may provide examples of unsuccessful predation (Sih 1985; Vermeij 1987) and a pre-condition for unpalatability and warning coloration
to evolve by individual selection.
Simply because "most of the tree is reconstructed as having warning coloration
; therefore many of the gains of gregariousness could have occurred in the context of warning coloration
simply by chance," (Maddison 1990, p.
We test its ability to explain signal design features in an unusually well studied area of biological signalling: warning coloration
Recently, Guilford and Cuthill (1991) and Rosenberg (1991) discussed the relative role of individual benefits (experienced by an individual prey itself), kin benefits (experienced by the relatives of the individual) and synergistic benefits (experienced by individuals sharing the same phenotype) in the evolution of unpalatability and warning coloration
in marine gastropods.