We also screened bat feces to identify potential routes of virus excretion
, which is useful when the route of exposure from bats to humans is known.
Evolution of the Sabin strain of type 3 poliovirus in an immunodeficient patient during the entire 637-day period of virus excretion
The outcome can be explained by a short duration of virus excretion
in stool, which, however, is unlikely for an infection spreading by the fecal-oral route.
Because bats were included in the study in a staggered manner, each bat was monitored for antibody titer against NiV and virus excretion
for 5 to 12 months.
Studies conducted during the equine influenza outbreak in Australia indicate that the levels of virus excretion
from horses not previously exposed to the virus can be extremely high (A.
by pigs was detected (3); real-time reverse transcription-PCR cycle threshold values [greater than or equal to] 26 (contact experiment with chickens) or [greater than or equal to] 17 (contact experiment with turkeys).
Infection was defined as seroresponse (4-fold rise in titer from preinoculation baseline to 30-day serum sample, as measured by ELISA) or fecal virus excretion
as detected by RT-PCR or presence of antigen.
from cloacal swabs was demonstrated from 2 to 6 DPI in the high-dose group (Figure 1, panel C) and 4-10 DPI in the low-dose group (Figure 1, panel D).