Measurement of circulating mediators such as intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) and citrulline may fill this gap, as they are validated indicators of enterocyte mass, villous
atrophy and permeability.
The first study tested patients newly diagnosed with celiac disease before and alter starting a gluten-free diet, patients with persistent small bowel villous
atrophy despite a strict gluten-free diet, and patients reporting abdominal symptoms after eating cereal.
This clinical improvement correlates significantly with decreased endomysial antibody titers, increased mean villous
height, and decreased intraepithelial lymphocyte count found on studies performed after elimination of gluten from the diet.
Histologically, the enteropathy involves inflammatory infiltrates of lymphocytes and damage to the GI epithelial layer including villous
atrophy and blunting, along with crypt hyperplasia [3,5,14].
Using the placenta as our organ of interest, we have identified how stereology can be applied to quantify relevant processes (including villous
growth and maturation, trophoblast turnover, fetoplacental angiogenesis and passive diffusion) and to test whether or not they are compromised in various complicated pregnancies.
Gliadin antibodies identify gluten-sensitive oral ulceration in the absence of villous
atrophy," J Oral Pathol Med, November 1991.
Supplemental use of glutamine, either in oral, enteral, or parenteral form, increases intestinal villous
height, stimulates gut mucosal cellular proliferation, and maintains mucosal integrity.
A study of surgical and biopsy materials of tubular (TA), tubulovillous (TVA) and villous
(VA) rectal adenomas--30 cases of each histological type was performed.
After a few tests, she was told that she has gastric atrophy and villous
atrophy of the small bowel.
Immunohistochemical studies have also demonstrated that nitrosamines are found in villous
vascular endothelium, and surrounding vascular smooth muscle cells and villous
stroma of the placenta .
In a patient with coeliac disease, gluten causes a strong entero-lymphocytic response, resulting in destruction of villi, especially in the proximal small bowel, seen on histology as varying degrees of villous
atrophy and lymphocytic enteritis characterised by intraepithelial lymphocytes.
3 (or17) [beta]-HSD activity: In normal placenta the syncytial cytoplasm of chorionic villi showed intense HSD activity whereas the cytotrophoblasts, villous
mesenchyme and cells in the intervillous spaces were devoid of the oxidoreductase activity (Fig.
Dermatitis herpetiformis is an intensely itchy chronic blistering skin condition of the trunk and limbs that is associated with gluten sensitive enteropathy and villous
of patients Signet ring cell carcinoma 2 Mucin-producing adenocarcinoma 7 Mucinous adenocarcinoma 6 Adenocarcinoma in tubulovillous adenoma 2 Adenocarcinoma in villous
adenoma 3 Neuroendocrine carcinoma, not otherwise 1 specified Carcinoid 1 Adenocarcinoma in adenomatous polyp 1 Adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified 107 Table 2.
2) The resulting villous
atrophy reduces the body's nutritional absorptive surface area, with the consequent potential for the development of malnutrition.