Esophagus with oblong to cylindrical posterior ventriculus
with one dorsal and one ventral longitudinal suture-like depression, or with small globular ventriculus
giving off posteriorly directed appendix with such depressions or rarely two appendices.
Left caudolateral displacement of the ventriculus
and intestines was confirmed due to coelomic effusion, and there was evidence of encapsulation of the fluid in some areas.
The weight of all the organs (small intestine, proventriculus, ventriculus
or gizzard, pancreas, liver, spleen, and bursa of Fabricius) of birds was identical (p > 0.
Tissue samples from brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, lungs, heart, liver, spleen, pancreas, adrenal glands, kidneys, crop, proventriculus, ventriculus
, intestine, and cloaca were placed in 10% buffered formalin for histopathologic examination.
On the right lateral view, the tubular structure appeared as a mass effect, displacing the proventriculus, ventriculus
, and liver caudally (Fig 2B).
Although a presumptive diagnosis can be achieved through imaging studies and biopsy, for most animals, definitive diagnosis is made postmortem, only after detailed histologic analysis indicates the accumulation of lymphocytes in nerves that supply the proventriculus and ventriculus
, in their associated ganglia, and in brain.
In 1 lovebird, only the proventriculus and ventriculus
were submitted, and in 2 lovebirds, only the proventriculus, ventriculus
, and liver were submitted.
Scattered lesions of necrosis and inflammation were seen in liver, cloacal bursa, thymus, proventriculus, ventriculus
, and pancreatic islets.
Coelomic palpation revealed a large ventriculus
, which was most likely impacted with pieces of a mouse that had been offered as food.
Furthermore, the proventiculus and intestinal loops cranial to that defect were markedly distended, compressing the air sacs and cranioventrally displacing the liver and ventriculus
Wood ducks that died had multiple petechial hemorrhages in the pancreas, whereas laughing gulls had more widely distributed petechial hemorrhages in the ventriculus
, apex of the heart, cerebrum, and pancreas.
However, radiographs obtained in 12 of 30 falcons (40%) affected with ND viscerotropic velogenic form revealed a severely distended ventriculus
and a distinctly inflamed ventricular wall.
The proventriculus, ventriculus
, intestines, pancreas, adrenal gland, and liver were mild to moderately autolyzed.
6-cm metal-dense foreign object in the region of the ventriculus
(Fig 3, lateral view of ventriculus
with leg repositioned).
A ventriculotomy was done to remove the wire, which had perforated the ventriculus
cranially and imbedded into the parenchyma of the liver.