Inoculation methods, such as variolation
, involved imparting immunity by infecting a person with the disease in question, but doing so in a controlled environment.
Thompson develops a theory of intellectual dissonance to account for the initial dismissal of variolation
in Vietnam, arguing that foreign theories of health and healing tend to be excluded from local biologies if the worldviews implicit in the former and the latter contradict each other.
, the inoculation of dried material from smallpox scabs into the skin of children and adults, was practiced as early as the 1100s as a method to prevent the disease.
His academic training is evident in the plentiful citations of research in the book's references (an entire chapter is devoted to research findings supporting the efficacy of micro-projection, of which microneedling is one type--as are variolation
and skin patches).
continued into the twentieth century in some regions (1).
James Phipps was unaffected by the variolation
, nor was he affected by subsequent outbreaks of smallpox.
The practice of variolation
(the deliberate infection with smallpox in the hope of causing a mild case and immunity) decreased the incidence of smallpox (and its effects on women's faces) early in the century but did not reduce the demand for face paint.
Engrafting, or variolation
, was a means of conferring immunity to smallpox by placing pus taken from a smallpox pustule under the skin of an uninfected person to create a local infection.
The narrative Bliss offers hearkens back to the variolation
versus religion fights of the eighteenth century but, though he provides illustrations of newspaper ads for quack medicines and therapies, he offers none to illustrate his point concerning the negative influence of religion during the fight against smallpox in Montreal.
The introduction of variolation
'a la Turca' to the West by Lady Mary Montagu and Turkey's contribution to this.