Incidence of typhoidal
Salmonella bacteraemia was higher in younger age group with highest incidence in age group 20-29 years whereas in our study population this age group had second highest incidence.
While ulceroglandular and glandular tularemia remain the more common presentation, a number of outbreaks of typhoidal
and pulmonary tularemia have been reported and reflect a diverse range of environmental exposures resulting in infection.
Another aspect of this disease worth noting is that typhoidal
or pneumonic tularemia, especially in non-endemic areas, should suggest the possibility of an act of bioterrorism.
tularemia patients present with fever, weight loss and prostration but not lymphadenopathy.
We excluded all typhoidal
serotypes: Typhi, Paratyphi A, Paratyphi B (L[+] tartrate-negative), and Paratyphi C.
High prevalence of typhoidal
Salmonella enterica serovars excreting food handlers in Karachi-Pakistan: a probable factor for regional typhoid endemicity.
Other forms of tularemia include oculoglandular (infection of the eye) and typhoidal
(fever without localizing signs) (3).
The clinical presentations are serious and multiple, ranging from glandular to pneumonic and typhoidal
It is interesting to note that an association between non-typhoidal
salmonellosis and/or typhoidal
salmonellosis and malaria was reported in the studies reviewed.
Occasionally tularemia in humans is divided into 2 categories: the external form which includes the ulceroglandular form (in which local or regional signs predominate) and the internal form which includes the more lethal typhoidal
form (in which systemic signs dominate the clinical picture).
Tularemia produces several specific syndromes, including ulceroglandular fever, typhoidal
tularemia and pneumonic tularemia.
Food Net estimate of the burden of illness caused by non typhoidal
Salmonella infections in the United States.
For the purpose of this analysis, patients with tularemia who presented with undifferentiated febrile illness or sepsis without localizing signs (often referred to as typhoidal
tularemia) were categorized as pneumonic tularemia, because these cases frequently have evidence of respiratory disease (3).
Two distinct clinical forms of tularemia have been described: typhoidal
and ulcero glandular.
associated co-infection with Salmonellae was observed in 16 patients mostly in complicated typhoidal
cases and S.