Several surgical approaches to the frontal sinus have been described, including frontal sinusotomy, endoscopic endonasal sinusotomy, and various combined approaches that involve both endoscopic techniques and frontal sinus trephination
However, results of aerobic culture of a sample collected during the trephination
procedure was negative for bacterial growth.
In the researchers' analysis, skull surgery, or trephination
, occurred on seven of 23 Inca individuals who suffered major cranial trauma, most likely due to warfare, and on 21 of 77 individuals who had minor, healed cranial injuries.
However, suture repair of avascular zone tears in tandem with trephination
of the peripheral tissue resulted in partial or complete healing in all cases.
Incision and trephination
were performed; pathologic examination after orthopedic intramedullary placement is shown in Figure 5.
Based on carbon-14 dating, the oldest example of trephination
was discovered in the Ukraine and is dated as 7300 B.
Scanes Spicer's name never gained association with the similar procedure that his colleagues in the United States and France described) involved a sublabial transantral approach to the maxillary sinus, with trephination
of the sinus through the antrum near the canine fossa.
Other techniques that potentially aid in healing that are utilized include trephination
and rasping of the tear surface to cause bleeding.
He excelled in both, as a professor of surgery at the Bicetre in Paris and as a noted anthropologist dealing with a plethora of subjects, including the Cro-Magnon man and Neolithic trephination