Effects of implementing a token economy
on teacher attending behavior.
A token economy
can help overcome some of the difficulties associated with assessing classroom participation (Junn, 1994).
He continued to exhibit these target behaviors when the token economy
was altered to target school-based behaviors only.
All of the students expressed a positive view of the service affirming their ability to complete the job ("I like it--it's easy"), receiving the potential benefits of the token economy
("You get to earn tickets"), as well as the positive comments received from staff.
Research has supported the effectiveness of both response cost and token economy
procedures in decreasing disruptive behavior in academic settings.
Smith's behavioral improvements are particularly noticeable due to the incentive program, or token economy
, in operation on his hospital unit.
Relatedly, instituting token economy
programs (see, for example, Esser & Botterbusch, 1975; Fernandes, Fischer, & Ryan, 1973); to selectively reinforce clients' job-appropriate activities in the workshop is also relevant in this context, although the latter may be construed as a psychosocially-targeted intervention as well.
Small exceptions have arisen where the subjects of behavioral economics research have been human rather than nonhuman animals, as, for instance, in the case of the token economy
in which a form of operant conditioning is used to reward desirable behaviors with tokens, which in turn can be exchanged for items or privileges (Kagel, 1972).
The virtual token economy
is built around games as opposed to having developers build in-game features into each game.
A token economy
in a junior high school special education classroom.
You work in a state hospital-like setting, and token economy
interventions are developed for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia and other serious mental illnesses.
For example, implementing a token economy
requires such considerations as defining the target behaviors, deciding what the tokens will be, and establishing a token exchange rate (Miltenberger).
For example, Rawson (1978), as well as Cantwell and Carlson (1983), found that positive social reinforcement combined with a token economy
system effectively improved two aspects associated with depression, self-control of behavior and academic performance.
The long-term effects of a token economy
on safety performance in open-pit mining.
system: The system enables a child to earn points or tokens for his/her appropriate behaviors.