It can be applied to any thermal spectrum, whether on Earth in the laboratory, or within any astrophysical context, provided of course, that thermal equilibrium
can be demonstrated.
between gaseous, liquid and solid phases inside the particle,
From 1966 to 1968, Peter Landsberg published a series of papers in Nature and raised a new related issue: he suggested that when the heat source moves transversely relative to the observer, the temperature change would not involve Doppler's effect, which can be determined only by considering how high-speed mobile objects reach thermal equilibrium
Leaving the system at this low pressure for a specific dwell time assured the thermal equilibrium
As our preliminary calculations showed, the thermal equilibrium
begins after 15-20 s, but at lower temperature (160-180 [degrees]C).
S1 -- Continuous duty rating: Constant load with duration long enough for motor to reach thermal equilibrium
Doing this requires knowledge of the time required for the solids to come to thermal equilibrium
Because of the lower mass of the HESC rotor in the wing areas, the thermal equilibrium
is reached much earlier.
Scattering of neutrons in the cold source cools the neutrons to approximately 40 K (they do not reach thermal equilibrium
with the liquid hydrogen).
Reaction temperatures can vary from -20[degrees]C (using an external chiller) to 150[degrees]C with temperature values measured and controlled at thermal equilibrium
to within 0.
When neutrons enter this container, repeated collisions with the cold hydrogen atoms will shift the neutron energy spectrum close to thermal equilibrium
with the moderator liquid.
4 [degrees] C and allowed to reach thermal equilibrium
is not required for an accurate measurement, reducing measurement times to about five minutes.
I played around with various ideas, and it eventually sank into my mind that no mechanism based on a thermal equilibrium
distribution of energy was going to explain this," Leggett recalls.
PART IV: OSCILLATOR POPULATIONS IN THERMAL EQUILIBRIUM