elliottii piles had heavy teredinid attack (rated 1.
elliottii piles at Cairns and Townsville were attacked by Sphaeroma and teredinids.
The marine borer hazard in northern Queensland in Australia is particularly severe because of the activities of all four main types of marine borers, Limnoria, teredinids, Martesia, and Sphaeroma.
While teredinids bore internally, their entry holes and posterior regions can be detected using this method.
Sphaeroma terebrans Bate is common to both sites, as are teredinids, although possible species differences within the Teredinidae have not been surveyed.
6 treatment (f) Mean of worst rating for all timbers (a) S = Sphaeroma (b) T = teredinids.
Purchon (1941) argued that several features common to the xylophagainid and teredinid digestive systems indicate a departure from reliance on filter feeding and represent specific adaptations to the digestion of wood.
It is now well established that wood is a primary constituent of the teredinid diet (Gallager et al.
This novel combination of symbiont metabolic activities is now thought to be essential for the survival of teredinids on a diet composed primarily of wood, a food source that, although rich in carbon and energy, is deficient in nitrogen and cannot be digested by most animals.
Whereas teredinids are the predominant wood-boring bivalves in shallow waters (intertidal to 100 m), bivalves of the subfamily Xylophagainae (family Pholadidae) fill the same niche in the deep oceans, occurring primarily at depths from 150 m to greater than 7000 m (Turner, 1972).
These features are shared by most teredinids but are divergent from the filter-feeding gill morphology of other lamellibranchs (Purchon, 1941).