The gases covered by the rule include carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFC), perfluorocarbons (PFC), sulfur hexafluoride
(SF6), and other fluorinated gases, including nitrogen trifluoride (NF3) and hydrofluorinated ethers (HFE).
The EPA said five other greenhouse gases also endanger health and contribute to global warming - methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride
The new rules would cover a reported 85 plants and require most chip makers to cut releases of sulfur hexafluoride
and other fluorinated gases by more than half over the next three years.
Manufactured gases such as halocarbons--including chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), and perfluorocarbons (PFCs)--and compounds such as sulfur hexafluoride
Ban the use of sulfur hexafluoride
from nonessential applications if viable alternatives are available.
The academy cited Ledwell for his "innovative and insightful tracer experiments using sulfur hexafluoride
to understand vertical diffusivity and turbulent mixing in the open ocean.
The leading greenhouse gases released in the United States are carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride
The scientists used sulfur hexafluoride
, commonly used in airflow testing, for the test release.
greenhouse gas emissions in 2001 consisted of 1,579 mmtce of CO [subscript]2 (84% of total emissions), 176 mmtce of methane (9% of total emissions), 98 mmtce of nitrous oxide (5% of total emissions), and 31 mmtce of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorcarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride
(SF6) (2% of total emissions).
Besides CO2, hydrofluorocarbon emissions slightly increased, but methane and sulfur hexafluoride
Since the industrial revolution and the expansion of agriculture, however, copious quantities of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases -- methane, nitrous oxide, ozone, halocarbons and sulfur hexafluoride
-- have been pumped into the atmosphere.
Signed by 150 nations in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the protocol seeks to reduce worldwide emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride
to 5% below 1990 levels by the 2008-2012 time frame.
(SF6) is a gas released by the production of energy, such as to insulate electrical switches or cables.
It now helps utilities identify leaks of sulfur hexafluoride
at their substations.
8% as of fiscal 1996 when compared with 1990 levels for carbon dioxide (CO2), methane and nitrous oxide, and with 1995 levels for hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons and sulfur hexafluoride