Specifically, the neurons of the striatum extend to the internal globus pallidus (direct pathway), the external globus pallidus (indirect pathway), and the substantia nigra
Phytocannabinoids are excitatory in the substantia nigra
which is explained by a CB1 receptor mediated inhibition of GABAergic inhibition (French et al.
Under this theory, Parkinson's only progresses to the substantia nigra
and cortex over the years.
Eventually, this reaches the substantia nigra
and the higher cerebellar neurons.
13 The substantia nigra
and locus caeruleus in the midbrain and pons respectively are pale due to loss of pigment.
Although it is possible that both of the diseases may lie on a continuum of a single disease that begins with ADHD manifested in childhood and continues into adulthood as dementia with Lewy bodies "when neuronal loss and gliosis in the substantia nigra
, locus coeruleus, and nucleus basalis of Meynert occur," the authors doubted that this hypothesis could be accurate because low dopamine levels in ADHD are not initially associated with Parkinsonlike or DLB symptoms.
Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome is characterized by iron deposition in the globus pallidus, red nuclei and substantia nigra
At this time the literature reports five cases of Parkinson-like stiffness in chronic Ecstasy users (Suilleabhain & Giller 2003; Baggot, Mendelson & Jones 1999; Borg 1999; Mintzer, Hickenbottom & Gilman 1999; Sewell & Cozzi 1999), suggesting damage can occur in the substantia nigra
of humans who use this drug.
Most recently, transcranial sonography has found that the substantia nigra
(SN) in people with RLS has a decreased echogenicity--in other words, a decreased ability to return a signal in response to an ultrasound signal.
PARKINSON'S occurs as result of a loss of nerve cells in the part of the brain known as the substantia nigra
Parkinson's disease is a human neurodegenerative disorder primarily characterized by a massive and progressive degeneration of the dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra
The proponents of hESC research see the dissection of the microscopic ball of cells that is the blastocyst as nothing more than the early stages of production of an immortalized cell line to be studied, nurtured and developed into pancreatic islets or substantia nigra
The disease's progressive, debilitating effects result from the slow but inexorable die-out of nerve cells in a region of the central brain called the substantia nigra
Inside the motor-controlling region, the basal ganglia, is the substantia nigra
An autopsy revealed a substantial loss of dopamine-producing cells in the substantia nigra
part of his brain, a hallmark of Parkinson's disease.