Besides the stony corals
, three other major groups of corals include species that thrive in cold water: true soft corals (Octocorallia), calcifying lace corals (Hydrozoa), and black corals (Antipatharia).
The task force, composed of the leaders of 11 federal agencies and the governors of states, territories, and commonwealths with coral reefs, found that more than 80 percent of the stony coral
and nearly 50 percent of marine aquarium fish in trade during the 1990s were destined for U.
and Reefs of Dominica (Lesser Antilles).
Key words: Stony coral
declines, turf-algal/sediment mats, herbivory, disease, fore reefs
1999); (4) CS164, a clonal isolate from the anemone Aiptasia tagetes (culture purchased from the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation [CSJRO], Australia); and (5) CS 156, a clonal isolate from the stony coral
Montipora verrucosa (culture purchased from CSIRO).
In the stony coral
Plerogyra sinuosa, vesicles with high zooxanthellae density expand only during daytime, and feeding tentacles expand at night (Vareschi and Fricke, 1986).
Porites colonensis, new species of stony coral
(Anthozoa: Scleractinia) of the Caribbean coast of Panama.
Early maximum growth of stony corals
(Scleractinia) after settlement on artificial substrata on a Caribbean reef.
The site is characterized by a 10-m vertical cliff showing numerous crevices and canyons, continuing with a gentle slope dominated by stony corals
, and ending at a depth of 45 m in a detritic bottom scattered with rocks.
But a new research has revealed that soft corals, like stony corals
, are one of the central building blocks of a reef.
Dive-boat anchors create enormous damage to the reef top's delicate stony corals
It is the hard limestone skeletons of the 1,000 or so species of stony corals
that make up the structures we call coral reefs.
of light canopying; the speed of it "conspiring"; of the stony corals
Coral reefs are one of the few marine habitats that undergo disturbance-induced phase shifts: an almost irreversible phenomenon in which diverse reef ecosystems dominated by stony corals
dramatically turn into biologically impoverished wastelands overgrown with algae.
The team studied the largest-known population of black corals in the world, along with other unique coral colonies in the area, including red hydrozoan corals, solitary stony corals
and various gorgonian sea fans.