The fluids that spew out
of the vents are packed with minerals and metals including copper.
Peering out a porthole, Corliss became the first person to witness the biological wonderland of shoe-sized clams, 6-foot tube worms, and blizzards of strange microbes thriving at the vents, which spew out
a hellish mix of shimmering brines.
Galaxies with quiet cores, notes Dressler, don't spew out
jets of material that can outshine starlight and confound measurements of stellar motion.
Researchers believe that radio galaxies typically spew out
two jets in opposite directions, each carrying about 1,000 billion times more kinetic energy and radiation than the sun's total output.
Although the visible surface of such stars remains somewhat cool, the stars spew out
streams of highly charged particles that heat their upper atmospheres to temperatures ranging from 100,000 kelvins to 2 million kelvins.