The most common amphibian was the western toad (Anaxyrus boreas; n = 68), followed by the western spadefoot
(n = 48).
Like other burrowing toads and frogs, a spadefoot
toad spends most of its life under the ground.
Given the known biology of this species, the occurrence of the Eastern Spadefoot
in the cave is surely accidental.
In the summer of 2013, a recently metamorphosed spadefoot
was observed in an ephemeral pool in the Lower Geyser Basin east of Fairy Creek in YNP at an elevation of 2201 m.
Rubin returned to the site the same evening, along with another student, Phil Evers, and found a single spadefoot
toad, Scaphiopus holbrookii, in the flooded meadow.
Specific actions will favour the reproduction of the European pond terrapin (Emys orbicularis) and the common spadefoot
toad (Pelobates fuscus insubricus).
Print edition, August 15, 2012, Spadefoot
Press, 118 pages, ISBN 978-0-9858672-2-5
Granulomatous dermatitis in a spadefoot
toad (Scaphiopus holbrooki).
Effects of larval density of postmetamorphic spadefoot
toads (Spea hammondii).
And for an amphibian, as the Mexican spadefoot
toad, it's better to deposit its eggs in pools more like a drinking glass than a plate, minimizing the risk of the pools drying up (Lannoo, 2005).
Ontogeny of corticotropin-releasing factor effects on locomotion and foraging in the Western spadefoot
toad (Spea hammondii).
Exploitation of food resources by spadefoot
The plains spadefoot
toad spawns offspring that grow up faster if dad is a different species called the Mexican spadefoot
, says Karin Pfennig of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Trails wind lazily through the forest to the river's edge, where tufts of cottonwood seeds drift through the air like giant snowflakes, and tiny spadefoot
toads hop about the mudflats.
Unarmored three-spine stickleback fish, San Fernando Valley spineflowers, Southwest arroyo toads, Western spadefoot
toads, horned lizards and many other species already call the project site home.