Ceramides are the hormones required to maintain moisture in the skin cells
TEHRAN (FNA)- Patterns appearing on both the very large and very small scale are extremely rare, but researchers have found a similar pattern in two apparently unrelated systems -- skin cells
and fairy circles in the Namibian desert.
That pathway ensures an increased proliferation and a quicker migration of skin cells
, processes which typically facilitate wound healing.
A combination of two key ingredients, teprenone and caprylic acid, has been clinically demonstrated to extend skin cell
life span and maintain moisture to promote youthful looking skin.
Yamanaka's original method used viruses to carry four genes into the skin cells
to transform them.
A team in Detroit transferred healthy skin cells
to 32 patients who had areas of the body that had lost colour due to the condition.
Aiding the body in a more restful night's sleep, skin cells
are allowed to perform optimal rejuvenation during the night while the body is relaxed.
Developing skin cells
migrating out from this region might be highly vulnerable to cancer, the researchers believe.
What happens when a skin cell
turns into a totipotent stem cell [a cell capable of developing into a complete organism] is that a few of its genetic switches are turned on and others turned off," writes bioethicist Julian Savulescu in the April 1999 issue of the Journal of Medical Ethics.
Scientists at the Stanford University School of Medicine have now shown that skin cells
can be coaxed to behave like muscle cells -- and muscle cells like skin cells
-- solely by altering who they hang out with: the relative levels of the ingredients inside the cell.
Scientists have previously shown that the insertion of between four and seven genetic factors can result in a skin cell
being directly reprogrammed into a beating heart cell," explained Dr.
To induce a skin cell
into pluripotency - a state that mimics the multi-functional embryonic stem cells - scientists shuttled a combination of four genes into the cell with the help of a retrovirus.
In simultaneous announcements yesterday scientists in Japan and America said they had discovered how to take an ordinary skin cell
- and transform it into any other kind of human body cell
Unlike the typical ointments and creams that line the shelves of local pharmacies, this patent-pending laser technology gently stimulates the skin repair process from within the skin cell
rather than from the surface of the skin.
Writing in the August 25 issue of Cell, Japanese researchers announced they have successfully modified a mouse skin cell
into an embryonic-like stem cell, according to Yomiuri Shimbun.