Beginning with Johnson (1950) and Cheung (1969), who led the way to argue for sharecropping, Reid (1973, 1977) and Alston and Higgs (1982), among others, have argued that sharecropped farms yield as much output as rented or owner-cultivated farms in the American South.
Our hypothesis is that, given the economic situation and institutional arrangement after the Civil War, sharecropping in the postbellum South was desirable because sharecropped farms could be more productive than owner-operated farms and perhaps more productive than rented farms.
The other explanatory variables, area sharecropped
, the number of family males, and remittances, were insignificant.
Therefore the third alternative will be significant, with landlords resuming their sharecropped out area to self cultivate it.
So tractors, will permit the resumption of sharecropped out area for self cultivation.
Since this operated area could not be exceeded further, sharecropped out area remained high at approximately 50 percent of the village area.
Profits per self cultivated acre above 250 acres will be equated to non operators profits per sharecropped out acre above 250 acres;
So, in Chak 323, the exogenously given HYV-induced tendency to increase operated area by resuming sharecropped area and increasing leased in and owned area would be expected to operate unconstrained.
Operated area is defined as an area owned plus leased in plus sharecropped in, minus leased out and minus sharecropped-out.
The ability to evict sharecroppers and resume sharecropped out area for self-cultivation was increased by the state's maintenance of an overvalued exchange rate which made tractorization cheaper, and the direction of agricultural credit largely towards tractors.
Sen (1981) explains the coexistence of large and small farms, especially small sharecropped farms on the basis of the exploitation of the cheap labour of small farms by the large.
Approximately 50 percent of the colony area was sharecropped out by absentee landlords.
These large farm sizes could earn high rental incomes, and so they were sharecropped out.
Sharecropped farms are mainly in the range of 2-5 hectares, but they have declined sharply in number and area.
There is also evidence that this land system is not conducive to efficiency in agriculture: large farms are not more efficient users of society's resources than small farms, and sharecropped (small) farms are not better performers than owner-operated (small) farms [3; 11 ; 15].