47) Pursuant to New York State treaties and related real property laws, Indian lands were divided into severalty
, thereby providing for individual ownership complete with right of inheritance, as well as to transfer or encumber property.
Allotment in severalty
was a federal policy that sought to break up the Indian reservations into individual land holdings.
We know of no principle which can distinguish this case from a grant made to a native Indian, authorizing him to hold a particular tract of land in severalty
Some examples of specific article topics include the Battle of the Alamo, Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid, Samuel Clements (Mark Twain), the Dawes Severalty
Act, dime novels, firearms, the idea of the frontier, the Grand Canyon, land speculation, migrant laborers, newspapers and journals, race relations, Theodore Roosevelt, Sitting Bull, the telegraph, transcontinental railroads, water and immigration, and Western music.
Senator Henry Dawes created the Dawes Commission via the Dawes Severalty
Act of 1887 (Bateman, 1991; Foreman, 1942).
Enclosures involved the transformation of lands over which common rights once existed--open fields, commons, and wastes--into property held in severalty
An act to provide for the allotment of lands in severalty
to indians on the various reservations (General Allotment Act or Dawes Act), Statutes at Large 24, 388-91, NADP Document A1887.
In the South, the intervening years had brought the replacement of slavery with sharecropping and lynching and the advent of voter disenfranchisement and Jim Crow segregation; the Chinese Exclusion Act in the West (1882), which limited Chinese immigration after "coolie" labor had built the transcontinental railroad; the Dawes Severalty
Act (1887), which divided communally owned Native American land into individual parcels so that white settlers could finish stealing land (reservation land declined from 138 million acres in 1887 to seventy-eight million in 1900); the Battle of Wounded Knee (1892), which ended the "Indian wars"; and, in the Southwest, Mexican servitude in low-wage jobs in mining and agriculture.
The government of Canada received a request from myself and my family for land in severalty
and tax exemption.
For example, Charles Vancouver concludes his General View of the Agriculture in the County of Essex: With Observations on the means of its improvement (1795) with "A general statement of the improvement, which by enclosing and laying into severalty
, may be annually made on the present rent or value of open common fields and waste lands, in this County" (emphasis mine).