The ferocious aggression showed up when researchers paired males from various competitive species with partners from any of three self-fertilizing
hermaphrodite species, including C.
Kanamori A, Yamamura A, Koshiba S, Lee JS, Orlando EF, and Hori H: Methyltestosterone efficiently induces male development in the self-fertilizing
hermaphrodite fish, Kryptolebias marmoratus.
We first tested the hypothesis that rate of egg production would be higher for isolated slugs producing unfertilized eggs than for isolated but self-fertilizing
Here I present results of a study designed to estimate the mating system, magnitude of inbreeding depression, the relationship between fitness and inbreeding level, and the variation among maternal plants in inbreeding depression in one population of partially self-fertilizing
species, isozyme variation within populations is lower than that among populations (Hamrick, 1989).
Technological fixes (safe nuclear power, new materials, self-fertilizing
crops) are part of the answer.
elegans is particularly easy to grow and maintain; a single self-fertilizing
worm can produce one trillion genetically exact "copies" in just one month.
Finally, tomato flowers, which are self-fertilizing
, require vibrations from wind or bumblebees in order to be pollinated and set fruit.
According to Haldane's Sieve, this allele will have an extra advantage in a self-fertilizing
population, because it will be found more often in homozygous form.
acacia trees are used for reforestation of ecologically ravaged areas in South America, Africa and Asia.
Furthermore, differences in inbreeding depression may alter the outcome of selection on self-fertilizing
genotypes and thereby affect the direction and rate of mating system evolution in related cytotypes.
These data have been interpreted to indicate a convergence in genetic structure between self-fertilizing
, hermaphroditic plants and animals (Nevo 1978; Jarne 1995).
Additionally, nonphilopatric species (not included in the review) ought to inbreed by self-fertilizing
when mates are rare (e.
Using the dichotomous classification of mating system, cumulative inbreeding depression across three stages in predominantly self-fertilizing
populations (mean [Delta] = 0.
Thus, more self-fertilizing
species should exhibit lower levels of inbreeding depression than the more outcrossing ones.