Genetic evidence of self-fertilization
in the sea anemone Epiactis prolifera.
After a second round of sunflower self-fertilization
, the pair used genetic markers to locate stretches of DNA that control 18 traits that differ between wild and crop sunflowers.
When genetic load is determined primarily by recessive mutations, interactions between the mating system and inbreeding depression should lead to one of two evolutionary stable endpoints: predominant outcrossing associated with strong inbreeding depression or predominant self-fertilization
with weak inbreeding depression (Lloyd 1979; Lande and Schemske 1985; D.
Because of an uncontrolled fertilization occurring in the blank control, further experiments were carried out to examine if this resulted from self-fertilization
In the June 13 Nature, the scientists conclude that the handedness in flower orientation does indeed reduce self-fertilization
e(v)] excludes any artificial or natural self-fertilization
above panmixia and thus covers a restrictive range of circumstances occurring in natural and experimental populations.
Correlated evolution of self-fertilization
and inbreeding depression: an experimental study of nine populations of Amsinckia (Boraginaceae).
Sexual reproduction, in contrast, results in more variable progeny, although obligate self-fertilization
will give rise to completely uniform, homozygous lines in a few generations.
Table 1 Clutch production and self-fertilization
for specimens of Alderia willowi Trial Treatment Age of 1st clutch Age of 1st Proportion production selfing (days) selfing (days) 1 Individual 14.
Like other functional hermaphrodites, self-fertilization
is common and can result in rapid inbreeding (Stiles & Choromanski 1995, Zhang et al.
Others had proposed that dimorphic species have arisen where self-fertilization
occurred and weakened the plants.
A 100% self-fertilization
treatment (0% allopollen) was developed as a check with a 100% cross-fertilization treatment (100% allopollen) for some experiments.
is] are positive (Table 2), as would be expected given that the hermaphrodites are known to be capable of self-fertilization
(Jolls and Chenier 1989; Petersson 1992).
In some species, such as Halocynthia roretzi and Ciona intestinalis, a self-incompatibility mechanism is in place to avoid self-fertilization
(autologous fertilization) (Morgan, 1944; Rosati and de Santis, 1978; Fuke and Numakunai, 1982).
leana may occur by parthenogenesis without self-fertilization
(or cross-fertilization) by eggs and sperm.