Informed by an evolutionary perspective suggesting that secondary sex characteristics
can function as visual heuristics pertinent to a woman's relative capacity to produce/nurture offspring, and mindful of the dual impact of testosterone on body hair growth and infertility among women of reproductive age (Apter, 1980; Azziz et al.
Environmental contaminants can have organizational effects on sex differentiation and on expression of secondary sex characteristics
in a variety of vertebrates (3-17).
testes with oocytes) and decreased expression of secondary sex characteristics
(Lange et al.
testosterone A steroid hormone that regulates the development of the male reproductive system and male secondary sex characteristics
Ethnic differences in the presence of secondary sex characteristics
and menarche among U.
Once they start puberty, trans-boys may develop female secondary sex characteristics
, such as breasts, and may even start to menstruate.
Other studies showed that estrogenic EDCs cause sex reversal in frogs and feminization of secondary sex characteristics
in fish (Arcand-Hoy and Benson 1998; Bogi et al.
For a male becoming female, female hormones are taken orally to produce changes in the secondary sex characteristics
, such as body hair reduction and breast development.
Abnormal secondary sex characteristics
, such as hair pattern, can point to hormonal problems, which would mean that the endocrine system is involved.
Sex" embodies a number of interrelated criteria, including chromosomes, genitalia, secondary sex characteristics
, gender traits, and sexual orientation.
Race, therefore, is about to join such other "social constructs" as quarks, atoms, motile sperm, and secondary sex characteristics
I also argue that the continued use of the concept of pseudohermaphrodite (individuals with gonads of one type combined with secondary sex characteristics
of a different type) is anachronistic, suggesting--wrongly--that we can know a person's true gender if we know what cells are in his/her gonads.
Testosterone is the hormone responsible for growth and development of male sex organs and maintenance of secondary sex characteristics
like facial hair in men.