Cubozoan and scyphozoan
jellyfishes of the Carolinian Biogeographic Province, southeastern USA.
They vary from scyphozoan
tentacle-trailing bells to hitched-together garland colonies of siphonophores.
The subumbrellar swim musculature of scyphozoan
jellyfish presents an interesting problem for neuronal control due to several unique features.
This removes a potential source of peripheral variability since the scyphozoan
Diffuse Nerve Net is capable of modulating swim muscle contractility (Horridge, 1956a, b; Passano, 1973).
GPCRs also facilitate metamorphosis in the scyphozoan
Cassiopea andromeda (Hofmann et al.
Table 1 Cnidarian jellyfish species used for feeding experiments of phyllosoma larvae Class Order Species Number of Experiments Scyphozoa* Semaeosiomeae Aurelia aurita > 10 Aurelia aurita > 10 (ephyraev and young medusae) Chrysaora pacifiea > 10 Sanderia malayensis 4 Rhizostomeae Mastigias papua 2 Nemopilema nomurai Hydrozoa Anthomedusae Nemopsis dofleini 4 Spirocodon saltalor > 10 Velella velella 1 Leptomedusae Aequorea S coerulescens Siphonophorae Physalia physafis 1 Cubozoa Cubomedusae Carybdea rastoni 2 * Bell diameters of scyphozoan
medusae used for the examinations ranged from 30 to 100 mm.
6A, 7A-B; Haeckel, 1880; Kramp, 1961); all other scyphozoans
have rhopalia at the bell margin.
That said, the presence of primary tentacles is likely to be a feature that is shared by cubozoans, scyphozoans
, and stauromedusans as a result of their common history.
Planulne range in length from 100 to 1000 [micro]m in hydrozoans, range from 100 to 400 [micro]m in scyphozoans
, and up to 160 [micro]m in cubozoans (Martin and Koss, 2002).
, in contrast and for unknown reasons, are generally opaque and pigmented (Mayer, 1910; Russell, 1970; Wrobel and Mills, 1998).
One example is the process of strobilation in symbiotic scyphozoans
such as Mastigias (Sugiura, 1964) and Cassiopeia (Colley and Trench, 1985); these jellyfish produce ephyrae only in the presence of Symbiodinium.
For Aurelia, as for o ther marine organisms including other scyphozoans
(7), new morphological studies, more molecular analyses, and better distributional data are required to establish a robust evolutionary framework in which ecological, applied, and other scientific or educational endeavors can be placed in their correct contexts.
The most frequently occurring of these is the gymnodinioid-like dinoflagellate assigned to the genus Symbiodinium, the alga commonly found in a variety of marine invertebrates such as tridacnid clams, certain nudibranch molluscs, reef-building corals, other anthozoans, and scyphozoans
A structural study of Periphylla luciferase molecules, to clarify the cause of their unusual stabilities, together with studies of other luminous scyphozoans
such as Atolla and Pelagia, would be important and interesting next problems.
and clupeid fish) indiscriminately feed on many planktonic prey, consistent observations of a given prey item in the gut of such a "single-particle predator" may indicate a strongly specific predator-prey relationship and provide insight into predator behavior.