Information on saxitoxin
-group toxins in shellfish can be found in the EFSA Opinion on Contaminants in the Food Chain (Question No EFSA-Q-2006-065E): Marine biotoxins in shellfish Saxitoxin
group (The EFSA Journal (2009) 1019, 1-76).
KEY WORDS: Alexandrium minutum, sxtA gene, qPCR, saxitoxin
, Crassostrea gigas
derivatives are molecules of only about 300 Da, immobilization methodologies have been developed to arrange them into formats that allow easier handling.
Concentrations of saxitoxin
and tetrodotoxin in three species of puffers from the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, the site of multiple cases of saxitoxin
puffer fish poisoning from 2002-2004.
They turned to a small molecule called saxitoxin
, produced naturally by certain types of microscopic marine creatures, and attached a signal to it so they could trace it by PET imaging.
The animals were found to contain high levels of saxitoxin
, a powerful neurotoxin associated with algae blooms.
, and their significance in the study of excitation phenomena.
, and cylindrospermopsin) emitted by cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) can impact humans and livestock.
Burns JM, Hall S, Ferry JL (2009) The adsorption of saxitoxin
to clays and sediments in fresh and saline waters.
Among them are saxitoxin
(used for medical research), triethenolemin and 'thyonyl chloride', which are used for plastic and PVC manufacturing but considered to be dangerous for non-industrial, individual use.
Sometime later, he discovered that an Uzbek warlord employed his technique to generate a large quantity of saxitoxin
and then used it to poison hundreds of people.
can lead to tingling, burning, numbness, drowsiness, incoherent speech, difficulty breathing.
It appears that voltage-gated sodium channels are the target of many natural neurotoxins that include batrachotoxin as well as tetrodotoxin (TTX), saxitoxin
(STX), conus toxins, scorpion toxins and aconitine.
Researchers have devised a novel technique in which the potent painkiller saxitoxin
is "packaged" inside specially designed fat-based particles called liposomes to produce a local anesthetic capable of blocking pain for up to a week following a single injection.
Now, Kohane and colleagues reported that if saxitoxin
is packaged within liposomes, it is able to block nerve transmission of pain without causing significant nerve or muscle damage.