Almost simultaneously, results of human blood samples drawn from Patient C and Patient D returned from the CDC Arboviral Diseases Branch with a positive plaque reduction neutralization test indicating prior infection with a sandfly fever
virus, most likely Sicilian serocomplex.
is a self-limiting infectious disease which occurs only in humans as a result of sandfly (phlebotomus spp.
I: Isolation and characterization of a sandfly fever
Sandfly fever Sandfly fever
, also Abrupt, high fever, virus, genus called phlebotomus headaches, photophobia, Phlebovirus fever and pappataci muscle and joint pain, fever.
including V cholerae) Giardiasis Amebiasis (Entamoeba histolytica) Leishmaniasis Tuberculosis Brucellosis Leptospirosis Echinococcosis (hydatid disease) Typhus (epidemic, endemic) Relapsing fever, tick and louse-borne Trachoma Intestinal helminth infections (ascariasis, enterobiasis, trichuriasis) Hookworm infection (ancylostomiasis) Tapeworm infection (taeniasis) Strongyloidiasis Sandfly fever
Other arboviral fevers Dengue fever Boutonneuse fever Congo-Crimean hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) Korean hemorrhagic fever Rift Valley fever Viral hepatitis (A, B, C, D, E) Meningococcal meningitis Syphilis (endemic, Bejel) Anthrax Q fever Rabies Plague Malaria Onchocerciasis Schistosomiasis Dracunculiasis Hymenolepiasis
Two groups correspond to recognized species: Sandfly fever
Naples virus (including sandfly fever
Naples [SFNV], Massilia, Tehran, and Toscana [TOSV] viruses) and Salehabad virus (including Salehabad and Arbia viruses).
This study describes the development, validation, and standardization of real-time PCR and reverse transcription realtime PCR assays to detect Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia spp, Borrelia spp (B burgdorferi, B afzelii, and B garinii), Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Leishmania, sandfly fever
Sicilian virus, dengue virus, Plasmodium spp, and chikungunya virus at the US Army Public Health Command Region-Europe.
In parts of Asia and north Africa, they spread a viral agent pappataci virus (an arbovirus) that causes sandfly fever
(pappataci fever) as well as protozoan pathogens (Leishmania spp.
Phylogenetic relationships among sandfly fever
group viruses (Phlebovirus.
Coxiella burnetii, sandfly fever
virus, hantavirus, and CCHF virus (CCHFV).
Several viruses in the family Bunyaviridae, such as severe fever thrombocytopenia syndrome virus, sandfly fever
Naples virus, and La Crosse virus, cause vector-borne zoonotic problems (1-7).
PCR for phleboviruses (2) resulted in a PCR product of the expected size, and the sequence was most closely related to those of isolates belonging to the Sandfly fever
Naples virus (SFNV) species (Figure).
A seroprevalence study suggested that TOSV is present in Tunisia and may cause neuroinvasive infections, but definitive evidence of TOSV circulation has not been possible because it is difficult to distinguish from the antigenically related phlebovirus Punique virus (3,4); both viruses are members of the species Sandfly fever
The genus Phlebovirus consists at least 60 antigenically distinct serotypes, including the sandfly fever
viruses transmitted to humans by phlebotomine sandflies.
To the Editor: Toscana virus (TOSV) is a serotype of Sandfly fever
Naples virus (SFNV) within the family Bunyaviridae and the genus Phlebovirus.