Previous sand fly
insecticide susceptibility/resistance tests were carried out following a World Health Organization (WHO) standard procedure that was originally designed for mosquitoes in which insects were exposed to an insecticide-impregnated filter paper (24, 25), or the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) bottle assay (3, 26) that exposes adult sand flies to an insecticide-treated surface inside the glass bottle.
This change in seasonality may reflect the population dynamics of the sand fly
vector for L.
But the biology of the parasite in the sand fly
is also critically important in determining the outcome of infection in man.
Comparative demography of the sand fly
Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae) at constant temperatures.
The disease caused by the sand fly
is called Leishmaniasis, said Incharge Epidemic Control Programme Dr Ataur Rehman.
Entomologists Andrew Li, Adalberto Perez de Leon, and their colleagues started a sand fly
colony to evaluate new insecticides and repellents, develop formulations, and design diagnostic tools for rapid detection of resistance.
Our results suggest that the highest activity of the collected sand fly
species occurs in third week of August that could help health authorities for prediction period of maximum risk of VL transmission and successful implementation of a control program.
But leishmaniasis, he would later learn, appears weeks or months after a victim is bitten by a sand fly
Although the campaign to eradicate leishmaniasis (the disease caused by a parasite carried by a species of sand fly
from dogs and rats to humans) was in full flow last year, we haven't heard any public announcements regarding the subject this year.
Kala azar, or visceral leishmaniasis, is a neglected tropical disease endemic in some parts of the south that is contracted by the bite of a sand fly
The sand fly
cell line (PP-9) derived from Phlebotomus papatasi provided by Dr Robert Tesh, Department of Pathology, Center for Bio-defense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch Galveston, USA, was maintained in Grace's medium (Gibco, BRL, USA) supplemented with 15 per cent FBS.
When an infected sand fly
bites a human, it injects the parasite under the skin, explains Col.
Kala azar, or visceral leishmaniasis, is a neglected tropical disease contracted by the bite of a sand fly
, endemic in some parts of southern Sudan.
It is caused by a bite from the sand fly
and if you take your dog on holiday to somewhere like Portugal it will run an extremely high risk of picking up the disease.
It is impossible to prevent the sand fly
," he added.