The major consequence of rigidities
in the Turkish labor market is the existence of a large informal segment.
Significant nominal and real rigidities (1) in the pricing of traded goods are shown in my work with Roberto Rigobon.
The presence of nominal rigidities in price setting generates trade-offs between the two exchange rate regimes.
If the skins present different materials and unequal thickness, with dissimilar skins and taking into consideration that the local flexural rigidities
for the skins cannot be neglected, this means that:
In the United States, there are relatively few market rigidities and the share of the working-age population with higher education is greater than in other advanced countries, albeit the market rigidities gap between the United States and other Anglo-Saxon countries remains quite small.
The capacity utilization rate, which is deemed to have an impact on ICT diffusion via the accelerator effect, and, alternatively, different variables representing capital market rigidities are put forward as explanatory variables.
Working on the assumption that money is not neutral, economists in the mid-1990s then started to introduce nominal price rigidities into these models, now also known as Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium (DSGE) models.
Almost all of the work on nominal price rigidities has answered this question using the framework of monopolistic competition, which assumes that the product whose price has to be determined is produced by a profit-maximizing monopoly.
A bout of inflation now might temporarily reduce unemployment, but unless labor market rigidities
are eliminated, it will soon be time to raise the target once again.
The first large part contains the three fields of real rigidities
: real wage rigidities
and the labor market, credit rationing and imperfect capital markets, real rigidities
in the goods market.
dollar-pegged economies, fiscal consolidation and structural reforms to address factor market rigidities
will be especially important for maintaining competitiveness.
Using the data in table 1, MSP rigidities
in daN/mm are as follows:
A downgrade for Colombia could be avoided if Colombian authorities articulate a viable plan addressing the looming pension problem and other structural rigidities
in public finances early next year.
While the city's fiscal autonomy constitutes a credit strength and budgetary rigidities
have lessened somewhat, officials must continue to follow a path of fiscal discipline so as to maintain a sustainable debt burden through final amortization.
While financial margins will likely remain narrow given limited prospects for revenue growth and certain rigidities
in the expenditure base, the MUC's commitment to continued stringent control over expenditures for the medium-term, should result in positive financial trends.