Restrainers with high self-esteem ate about the same amount in both preload and non-preload conditions (Polivy et al.
In support of the cognitive-behavioral model of bulimia nervosa, Ross and Wade (2004) found that self-esteem predicted dietary restraint among a sample of restrainers and non-restrainers, but this relationship was fully mediated by weight and shape concern.
Results which indicated that self-esteem scores were negatively correlated with level of restraint are consistent with the existing research which suggests that restrainers have lower self-esteem than non-restrainers (Dykens & Gerard, 1986; Pesa, 1999).
The results of these mediation models cannot specify the direction of the relationship between self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, and dietary restraint, but they can be seen as lending support to the cognitive-behavioral model of bulimia nervosa among restrainers.
To counter this, restrainers
or couplers were developed to basically tie the spans together.
As in the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, the implementation of hinge and joint restrainers is credited with preventing the collapse of many of the bridges in the epicentral region.
The retrofit techniques of joint restrainers, column jacketing, and foundation strengthening generally improved the performance of the affected bridges.
Either extend the seat width or add cable restrainers across the joint if seat widths are inadequate in order to prevent spans from becoming unseated at piers and in-span hinges.
As an alternative to extending seat widths or adding cable restrainers, a number of simple spans could be made continuous by structural modifications (e.
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