production economics were computed upon completion of the study and were based on the direct expenses associated with each of the increasing energy phases.
The last farm in the model had a herd of 130 small-framed Holstein/Jersey crossbred cows and 95 replacement heifers
exported about 117,000 dairy replacement heifers
in 2011-12, according to the USDA Foreign Ag Service.
Effects of BW during post-pubertal stage on MY potential and optimum body size of replacement heifers
have been extensively reviewed by Hoffman (1997).
The strategy of providing less feed may reduce costs of developing each replacement heifer
by more than $31 and extend their life span, with important ramifications for lifetime efficiency and profitability," says Roberts.
The farm has 410 milking cows and 260 replacement heifers
, and more than 300 acres of grassland that provides forage for local farmers.
DairyCo's North East extension officer Jo Speed said calf-rearing trends also indicate large Holstein herds appear to be opting to contract rear replacement heifers
with off-farm specialists.
Interestingly though, some are already finding innovative ways to use the pen space, for instance, growing dairy replacement heifers
, beef replacement heifers
or even serving as a place for cows to be fed until pastures return.
This was further compounded by the low value of calves reared for meat or as replacement heifers
This was caused by falling milk yields per cow as a result of poor silage made in 2007 and worsening herd fertility, as well as a lack of replacement heifers
following herd sales and increased culling post-TB.
The dairy consists of an 8,500-cow Jersey herd, 7,500-cow Holstein herd and 25,000 replacement heifers
and dry cows.
Another major area of inquiry at Fort Keogh is the management of replacement heifers
- young females that go back into the breeding herd to produce the next generation of calves.
She and her family milk 550 cows and maintain 450 replacement heifers
on 1,000 acres near Coupeville on Whidbey Island.
The partnership aims to raise 80 to 90 dairy replacement heifers
each year from selected cows and the remainder calve to a British Blue beef bull.
Eblex said beef farmers should look at the genetics that will have the greatest commercial impact of their herds when buying stock bulls and replacement heifers