Fredrickson's claim about the trajectory of racism runs parallel to William Julius Wilson's argument in The Declining Significance of Race.
One of only a handful of attempts to cover Western attitudes toward race comprehensively, Fredrickson's Racism is by far the most concise and lucid.
At the same time Fredrickson stresses that in both the Southern United States and Germany, the process of social and economic modernization created anxieties that in turn facilitated racism.
Racism refers to practices and processes of exclusion, though this is, according to Miles, an overstretch, which "on one hand does not have sufficient separation sharpness, on the other hand makes the determination of deterministic relationships more difficult" (ibid.
In order to achieve an analytical accuracy, racism should be therefore understood as a representational phenomenon, and so should be determined not by its function, but by its ideological content.
Levi-Strauss (1983; 1988) has also a narrow view on racism by defining it in the sense of "classical" meaning.
Fredrickson (2011) asserts that racism has two components: difference and power.
In this understanding of racism one can see a much broader range of meanings.
The coverage area of the concept of racism is even more extensive in other comprehensions.
self-identified victims of racism aged fourteen to twenty among a refugee youth population of approximately one hundred at the time of the study).
17) Furthermore, for those who arrive in Canada as refugees, asylum seekers, or low-skilled immigrants, research conducted by the Canadian Race Relations Foundation found that the unemployment rate is higher among foreign-born visible minorities and Canadian-born visible minorities than their white counterparts, that good jobs remain elusive for minorities, that higher education offers fewer payoffs for minorities, and that racism, especially subtle racism, continues to be a factor in the workplace.
Each of the twelve participants engaged in an in-depth one-to-one interview on the subject of racism.
The author also believed that the telephone interviews put an emotional distance between the interviewer and the interviewee, allowing for a freer discussion on racism.
Assessing the participants' prior understanding of racism was crucial, as this would not only help frame their experiences, but also contribute to a better understanding of their reality living within a predominantly white city.
22) Ian Law, however, suggests that racism has existed in numerous forms across the globe since antiquity.