However Leventhal and Schwartz (12) have reported a case of an infected infratemporal space as a complication of dental injection and they suggested that a hematoma resulting from the injury to the pterygoid plexus during dental injection to the maxillary region could be the cause of the infection.
Infections of the infratemporal fossa can occur due to tooth extraction or needle insertion into the pterygoid plexus, and may have life threatening results if not managed properly.
This anatomical fossa includes several important structures such as the internal maxillary artery, the venous pterygoid plexus
, the sphenopallatinun nerve, the coronoid process of the mandible and the pterygoid muscles.
4) Nelson et al suggested that the Valsalva maneuver may cause a retrograde flow through a thin valveless low-pressure system that communicates with the venous system of the thorax, abdomen, and pelvis; through this pathway, tumor emboli are transported to the pterygoid plexus
and paranasal sinuses.