The purpose of this paper is to describe the architecture and habit of the medullosan pteridosperm
Macroneuropteris scheuchzeri based on a specimen preserved upright in growth position, the first described example of its kind.
The floral remains confirm a humid environment which favoured lycopsids, sphenopsids, ferns, and less common pteridosperms
male fructifications: American species of Dolerotheca, with notes regarding certain allied forms.
and cordaitaleans were assisted through dry periods by a substantial root system, which allowed them to tap deep groundwater sources (Falcon-Lang and Bashforth 2004).
This article reviews the information gathered to date on vine- and liana-like forms among late Palcozoic pteridosperm
taxa from the Upper Carboniferous-Lower Permian of Europe and North America based on impression/compression material and cuticle preparations.
Morphological analysis of the "bifurcate semi-pinnate" frond architecture of the Carboniferous pteridosperm
Laveineopteris rarinervis, with the support of some recently discovered specimens.
Revision of the pteridosperm
foliage Alethopteris and Lonchopteridium (Upper Carboniferous), Sydney Coalfield, Nova Scotia, Canada.
How Paleozoic Vines and Lianas Got off the Ground: On Scrambling and Climbing Carboniferous-Early Permian Pteridosperms
1988, Stewart & Rothwell 1993): spermatophytes (seed plants comprising the extant gymnosperms and angiosperms and few extinct groups, being the Pteridosperms
the most prominent one) and monilophytes (ferns sensu stricto).
are the backbone of seed-plant phylogeny.
The equatorial flora that existed in the watery environments of the Carboniferous Period, for example, included Pteridosperms
(Pecopteris, Neuropteris, etc.
8h) with minor contributions from lycopsids (Lepidodendron and Lepidophloios), sphenopsids (Calamites), and possible tree ferns and pteridosperms
(Ielpi et al.
Evidence for a pollination-drop mechanism in Paleozoic pteridosperms
The plants essentially belong to callipterid pteridosperms
and conifers; in addition, possible cycads and problematic specimens of calamites and ferns must be mentioned.
Late Gzhelian pteridosperms
with callipterid foliage of the Donets Basin, Ukraine.