On the molecular level, some molecular and genetic alterations may contribute to malignant transformation, including mutations of proto-oncogenes
and tumor suppressor genes, gains and losses of genetic material, as well as aberrant activation of some important signaling pathways, such as nuclear factor-?
10] Human genes: CD117, synonym for KIT (KIT proto-oncogene
receptor tyrosine kinase); EGFR, epidermal growth factor receptor; ALK, anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase; HER2, synonym for EBBR2 (erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2); BRAF, B-Raf proto-oncogene
, serine/threonine kinase; KRAS, KRAS proto-oncogene
, GTPase; CEBPA, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha; APC,APC, WNTsignaling pathway regulator; RB1, RB transcriptional corepressor 1; PIK3CA, phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha.
The Evi1 proto-oncogene
is required at midgestation for neural, heart, and paraxial mesenchyme development.
The report provides a snapshot of the global therapeutic landscape for Myc Proto-Oncogene
c-Myc or Class E Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Protein 39)
2] activates SRC family proto-oncogenes
, which regulate vascular development and vascular permeability , the latter of which is an early step in tumor stroma development .
Hiai, "Isolation of ret proto-oncogene
cDNA with an amino-terminal signal sequence," Oncogene, vol.
In addition, future and ongoing clinical trials will not be limited to the targetable mutations described above and may involve mutations of other genes including ret proto-oncogene
(RET) and HER2/neu.
E2F1 and H3K9 acetylation interactions at a number of gene promoters including the tumor suppressor p53, apoptotic genes Bax and Puma, and proto-oncogenes
Myc and Fos were assessed by the ChIP assay and qRT-PCR.
There are different in vivo and in vitro studies showing that prolonged induction of c-fos proto-oncogene
leads to neuronal death after ischemia, and that this proto-oncogene
and its products cause diverse neuronal damages in addition to the neurodegenerative nature of c-Fos induction .
Caption: THYROID CANCER RET proto-oncogene
mutations increase risk.
Conclusion: Hepatitis C virus non-structural protein 2 gene plays a role in adjusting the proto-oncogene
Bcl-2 and tumour suppressor gene Bax.
Quantitative: Tumour formation induced by increase in the absolute number of proto-oncogene
products or by its production in inappropriate cell types.
2) Perhaps, the most critical development that distinguished GIST as a unique clinical entity was the discovery of c-kit proto-oncogene
gain-of-function mutations in these tumors by Hirota and collegues in 1998.
Modulation of c-MET proto-oncogene
(HGF receptor) mRNA abundance by cytokines and hormones: Evidence for rapid decay of the 8 kb c-MET transcript.
Cell apoptosis was evaluated and the expressions of JAK1, STAT3, non-metastasis23-1 (nm23-1), and apoptotic gene like B-cell lymphoma/leukemia-2 (bcl-2), B-cell lymphoma-extra large (bcl-xl), proto-oncogene
proteins c myc (c-myc) and bcl-2- associated X (bax) were also examined.