The same analysis was carried out on fifteen proto-oncogene
Mutation of the kit proto-oncogene
results in a CD 117 receptor that is constantly stimulated without the presence of the stem-cell growth factor.
A positive RET proto-oncogene
in codon 918 was confirmatory.
PTC is a novel rearranged form of the ret proto-oncogene
and is frequently detected in vivo in human thyroid papillary carcinomas.
Previous research had established that Ras, a proto-oncogene
, is abnormally expressed in up to 25 percent of human lung cancers; but, researchers did not understand the specific cellular events by which abnormal Ras expression leads to transformation.
Molecular studies showed a point mutation in amino acid 918 in exon 16 of the RET proto-oncogene
It is noted that a locus, representing the proto-oncogene
BCL3, resides on at 19q13 (OMIM: http://www.
The BRAF gene encodes B-Raf proto-oncogene
serine/threonine-protein kinase (B-raf), a protein involved in cell signaling and cellular growth and differentiation.
The VHL gene is a tumor suppressor that regulates extracellular matrix formation, the cell cycle, and transcription of vascular endothelial growth factor, a proto-oncogene
that promotes angiogenesis.
4,5) In approximately 40% of sporadic medullary thyroid cancer, and in up to 100% of hereditary medullary thyroid cancer cases, the cancer is caused by specific mutations in the RET proto-oncogene
, a receptor tyrosine kinase, that transduces signals for cell growth and differentiation.
Diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia [MEN] 2A, 2B and familial medullary thyroid cancer [FMTC] by multiplex PCR and heteroduplex analyses of RET proto-oncogene
A variety of carcinogens have been shown to induce ras mutations in animal and human tumor models, and ras proto-oncogene
mutations have been implicated in the development of many malignancies including pancreatic and breast cancers.
In contrast, testing an individual with multiple endocrine neoplasia type-2 (MEN-2) for the RET proto-oncogene
can avoid medullary carcinoma if the individual is positive and undergoes a prophylactic thyroidectomy.
Oral cancer progression and c-erbB-2/neu proto-oncogene
K-Ras is mutated in a wide array of human cancers, most of which are aggressive and respond poorly to standard therapies," said Yi Liu, Ph.