Copies of the promoter and foreign gene construct are microinjected directly into the male pronucleus
with a fine glass needle.
After confirming that the ovum has reached the stage where it can allow fertilization, he removes the donor's sperm cells, which by then are in a pronucleus
The hydatidiform mole is a uterine tumor that occasionally develops in which the fetus is absent and the placental tissue is abnormally large, arising most often from a sperm's fertilizing an ovum in which the female pronucleus
The egg membranes and membrane of one pronucleus
are pierced, and the gene replicas are placed inside the pronucleus
In Werlin's study, 75 patients undergoing PGD treatment were retrospectively reviewed to determine if embryos obtained from second day intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), single pronucleus
and no pronuclei exhibited characteristics of normality and viability for transfer.
Interestingly, the number of oocytes presenting a pronucleus
(PN) formation using sperm from boar 2012 was only four, one oocyte had 1PN and 3 oocytes had 2PN.
Cysteamine is a thiol that increased GSH and promoted male pronucleus
formation in porcine oocyte.
Between 10 15 min after mixing sperm and eggs, a pronucleus
formed in the egg cytoplasm (Fig.
Of these, ds DNA breaks are the most mutagenic, because in the pronucleus
stage zygote, the two genomes are separated, hence DNA template information for error free repair of the ds breaks is absent.
Biodigms(R), or DNX's proprietary transgenic mice for drug testing, are produced by microinjecting purified DNA fragments with the gene of interest into the pronucleus
of fertilized eggs.
Polar body formation and development of the female pronucleus
GAGs restrict hardening of oocytes and promote capacitation, oocyte penetration by sperm, and nuclear decondensation and formation of the male pronucleus
(Mahmoud et al.