The female pronucleus
also swelled, but the centrosomes associated with the female pronucleus
during meiosis disappeared after PB2 formation.
To explain some of these mosaic cases, the authors suggested "fertilization of one oocyte by one spermatozoon, followed by duplication of the paternal pronucleus
, creating a 'temporary tripronuclear zygote' with two identical paternal pronuclei .
Formation of the male pronucleus
and early embryonic development after sperm penetration was inhibited if oocytes which have no cumulus cells matured .
Results: The formation of female pronucleus
after ICSI of xenogenic sperm was higher than epididymal and testicular sperm in non-activated oocytes.
Pronuclear microinjection: The microinjection into pronucleous is the most common method known in microinjection of exogenous DNA into the pronucleus
of a newly fertilized egg (zygote).
After fertilization, use a fine needle to inject the foreign DNA into the large male pronucleus
derived from sperm, then is implanted in a foster mother and develops into an embryo.
The lance is used to accumulate and retain DNA and is then introduced into an animal's pronucleus
, where the DNA is released.
is "[t]he haploid nucleus of a sperm or egg before fusion of the nuclei in fertilization.
Glutathione concentration during maturation end alters fertilization in pig oocyte: Relevant to the ability of oocytes to from male pronucleus
Of single stranded (S5) and ds DNA breaks, in the sperms the latter have greater mutagenic potential, because of the absence of an error free copy as a template for DNA repair in the G1 phase male pronucleus
First, they need to test if a normal male pronucleus
with appropriate chromosome numbers and without mutations can form when introduced into an animal egg; and there has to be evidence that these sperm-like cells are properly reprogrammed with male-specific imprints, without which they cannot function properly in early embryos.
These include 1) the cortical reaction, 2) completion of meiosis 2 with extrusion of the second polar body, and 3) formation of pronucleus
is more or less located in a central position.
SAN ANTONIO -- An experimental infertility therapy involving the transfer of a patient's pronucleus
into a donated enucleated oocyte produced the world's first reported human pregnancy from nuclear transfer in China, Dr.
For example, genes contributed to the embryo via the sperm are required for placental formation: When an egg has a pronucleus
from another female injected into it, no placenta develops; in contrast, an egg that has its pronucleus
replaced such that all genes are paternal does not develop into a normal embryo, but the placenta develops.