The choice between probabilism
and fuzziness is important.
In contrast, what Probabilism
involved (and it was a more complex position than Pascal seems to have taken it to be) was an affirmation of "the liberty to follow one's own judgment of conscience instead of deponere conscientiam in order to follow the law or the confessor's opinion" (117).
1) In this light, environmental statutes like the Clean Air Act ("CAA"), Clean Water Act ("CWA"), and Toxic Substances Control Act ("TSCA") are the legal extensions of probabilism
and the "rational" pursuit of public health and safety--with conservation statutes like the Endangered Species Act ("ESA") following right behind them.
We then return to probabilism
with a characteristically neat article from Alan Hajek.
408), which Julio Ortega describes as a festive gesture, "the merry probabilism
of what could not be but that, in the writing, comes to be" (Ortega, "Sumar" 75, translation mine).
The Catholic doctrine also provides the principles of probabilism
and of the primacy of a well-formed conscience under which Catholic men and women have the right to disagree with the Churches teachings that have not be declared infallible.
Cook credits the development of Descartes's materialism to his years spent in the merchant environment of the Netherlands and in particular to his early friendship with Isaac Beeckman, who also stimulated Pierre Gassendi's advocacy of atomism, probabilism
, and empiricism.
In his remarks to Patmore there may be a hint that Hopkins was applying the Jesuit moral position of Probabilism
to Patmore's poetic case.
Contrary to the modern contempt for casuistry and probabilism
Fleming sees them as necessary tools for teasing apart the often considerable moral complexities and conflicting loyalties and responsibilities that actually occur in the lives of human beings.
The Catholic system of probabilism
supports Catholics' right to dissent from church teachings if there is a solid probability that the teaching is wrong and that this belief is supported by theologians or that the dissent is informed by prayerful and thoughtful discovery.
There are three distinct steps in this account of meaning by Peirce: 1) a stimulus to act, 2) an action, and 3) a sensible result, which are against the background of Peirce's probabilism
To decide on the proper response to the risks, Perry proposes the 16th century moral theory of probabilism
The fundamental principle which guides Probabilism
is, "Where there is doubt, there is liberty.
Simberloff, "A Succession of Paradigms in Ecology: Essentialism to Materialism and Probabilism
," Synthese 43 (1980): 3-39.
One of the preconditions for the dominance of probabilism
has been the production of 'facts,' observable regularities recorded routinely in a dispassionate manner.