In contrast to the stringent standards, the Bodhisattva preceptive apocrypha specifically enjoined a non-discriminate attitude when it came to screening the ordained.
50) Shi Guodeng pointed out that a related feature about Ming preceptive practices was the wide incorporation of Tantric elements for daily usage.
The tension resulted from a growing population of want-to-be-monastics, which, in tandem with the lack of channels to be properly ordained as one, found some alleviation in apocryphal Bodhisattva preceptive texts.
Preceptive literatures written in that period equated Buddhist morality and the Confucian cardinal virtues.
80) The first preceptive book compiled exclusively for the laity was in fact written in the Ming.
As opposed to other imported Mahayana preceptive scriptures like the Yoposai Jiejing, which spelled out mostly moral persuasions for the monastics, the indigenous Yinglo Jing and Fanwang Jing contained counsels on virtuous lay livelihood and pertinent situations in which a city dweller might find himself.
These designated "special occasions" were mitigating circumstances in which the sutra would allow for temporary suspension of observance of certain precepts, and since imported Bodhisattva preceptive literatures often spelled out the specific conditions in painstaking detail, there was less room for negotiation.
The unique socio-economic developments in the Ming that gave rise to the prominent characteristics of Ming preceptive exegeses were not singular phenomena in China.
The connection between the identified social factors and the unfolding of certain preceptive features is further verified, now that their correlation could be found in a different social context with similar social characteristics.
Sheng-Yen, too, attributed the success of Daoxuan's preceptive lineage to his peculiar Vijnanavada approach, which was favored by Chinese Mahayanists.