More recent research also has supported the notion that safety signals function as positive reinforcers
Even if the behavior was initially trained with positive reinforcement, if a cue is followed by an aversive correction (leash pop, verbal reprimand) for incorrect behavior, the cue immediately loses its positive association and its value as a positive reinforcer
One of the problems a speech-language clinician faces is determining what are the appropriate positive reinforcers
for a particular client.
7 cm) index cards and illustrated the antecedent to the problem social situation, the desired target behavior, and the positive reinforcer
(Groden & Lavasseur, 1995).
2004), the addition of a positive reinforcer
delivered during instruction reduced the escape-motivated non-compliant behavior of some participants.
Self-control and choice in humans: Effects of video game playing as a positive reinforcer
Schramm describes the process of pairing, where the adult establishes himself or herself as a positive reinforcer
before moving on to include instructional activities in those parent-child interactions.
With behaviors functioning to access a positive reinforcer
, the occurrence of the replacement behavior is scheduled to produce a higher rate of the specific reinforcer than the problem behavior.
As soon as the dog understands what a given cue means, the cue itself becomes a positive reinforcer
Other studies have demonstrated that extinction, certain schedules of reinforcement, and aversive stimulation establish aggression as a positive reinforcer
in nonhumans (Azrin, Hutchinson, and McLaughlin 1965; Cole and Parker 1971; Dove 1971), and Frederiksen and Peterson (1977) have reported comparable results with human subjects.
For SMA behaviors, a decrement effect depends on whether the access to the desired positive reinforcer
is quicker when restraint is enacted versus when restraint does not occur.
A functional analysis revealed that attention served as a positive reinforcer
for challenging behavior (e.
Davidson, 1998) is not a discriminative stimulus for lever pressing but does establish the operation by which a food pellet functions as a positive reinforcer
According to Skinner's definition, punishment is a procedure in which responses are followed by either (a) the removal of a positive reinforcer
, or (b) the presentation of a negative reinforcer (or aversive stimulus).
Self-control choice in humans: Effects of video game playing as a positive reinforcer