It has generally been accepted that positive eugenics
is not enough to significantly improve the genetics of the human race, therefore negative eugenics were also required.
Hubback's obituary of Rathbone in The Eugenics Review is instructive: despite being billed in the preceding issue as "an appreciation of this great woman and an assessment of her contribution to the cause of positive eugenics
", it failed to spend a single word discussing this supposed affiliation ('Obituary of Eleanor Rathbone', January 1946:186; Hubback, 1946: 7-8).
Kline describes a transformation from negative to positive eugenics
in the United States, post-World War II, which explains the continuation of professional influence on reproductive control in that country.
Public education and voluntary abstinence were considered positive eugenics
According to Habermas, "the procedures of preimplantation genetic diagnosis and research on human embryonic stem cells demand the adoption of wide-working attitudes that tend to promote the transition from a negative to a positive eugenics
," that is, from practices concerned with preventing the transmission of severely disabling conditions to practices aimed at optimizing a child's genetic makeup (158/96).
8) Positive eugenics
too has received scholarly attention, with examination of particular attempts to educate people about Mendelian laws of inheritance through such things as "Fitter Families" and "Better Babies" contests at state fairs in the 1920s and 30s.
He supported negative eugenics but recognized a more cautious approach to positive eugenics
as means for social development.
To conduct research on positive eugenics
, West German and Danish fertility rates, and to measure genetic distances between major races .
Policies within the eugenics movements in the early decades of the 20th century included positive eugenics
, which sought to foster more breeding among those deemed to be socially meritorious; and negative eugenics, which sought to discourage breeding among those deemed to be socially disadvantageous.