Homomorphism: Given two cipher texts c1 and c2 on plaintexts
m1 and m2 respectively, one can obtain the cipher text on the plaintext
ml +m2 and/or ml m2 by evaluating cl and c2 without decrypting cipher texts.
d]-word key stream, one can encrypt a plaintext
such that by using any key stream generated from a different seed to decrypt the ciphertext, the decrypted plaintext
will become an avalanche-like text which has ([2.
data, no keys, or file metadata ever leaves your private PC or device.
The FBI recently released a warning about a new Punkey malware, uncovered by Trustwave, which scans and scrapes un-coded, plaintext
credit card information in the RAM of payment-processing devices such as card readers and POS terminals.
The AES cipher calculation is specified as a number of repetitions of transformation rounds that convert the input plaintext
into the final output of cipher text.
In symmetric encryption, you and I would use the same key to encrypt the plaintext
message as to decrypt it.
When reports went out about Adobe Digital Editions software sending information back to Adobe in plaintext
, many of us were concerned but not sure where to start.
This efficiency is different for encrypted and plaintext
messages, because encrypted messages always has to be padded to cipher block size.
In addition, less resources in a communication channel are required, since the encrypted text has the same size than the plaintext
, ensuring that all the sent information will be useful, which does not occur with asymmetric algorithms, which add bits to the encrypted text increasing the size with the same useful information (Khurana et al.
The bug may provide a way to extract the unencrypted plaintext
from an encrypted session and that may lead to attack websites, OCERT says while terming the severity of the risk high and advising the users to upgrade the software ( http://www.
image in figure 5 (a), the cipher text image in figure 5 (b) and the encrypted image are obtained by the above algorithm.
Return to Rome Working with the Caesar Shift Plaintext
a b c d e f g h i j k l m Ciphertext: D E F G H I J K L M N O P Plaintext
n o p q r s t u v W x Y z Ciphertext: Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C This table shows the letter mapping of a Caesar shift.
In most cases it is either plaintext
or poorly hashed with an obsolete hashing algorithm, like MDS.
The story, board, list of moves, and Martin Gardner's annotations comprise the elements necessary to a cipher: a plaintext
, a key, and a ciphertext.
Decryption is the reverse, in other words, moving from the unintelligible ciphertext back to plaintext