29) Such an obvious lack of understanding of the piano action
is curious, since there was no keyboard action that could produce this effect.
Discussions in the literature dealing with Cristofori's fortepianos have centred largely on the invention and development of the piano action
, with comparatively little attention being paid to the case structure beyond the free inner bentside, floating hitchpin rail and inverted wrestplank.
Rosamond Harding set new standards in historical investigation and technical acumen in The Pianoforte: its History Traced to the Great Exhibition of 1851 (1933); her superb technical drawings became a baseline for succeeding work on piano actions
His earlier article on Cristofori, for example, surveyed the maker's three surviving pianos as well as some biographical material; the relevant chapter in the book provides more of the latter as well as information on an additional Cristofori piano action
, with more photographs.
Americus Backers is said to have invented the standard English grand piano action
in 1776: this is directly followed by a description of a Backers piano of 1772 with that very same action.
A piano by Louis Bas, made in 1781, probably in Marseilles, in the possession of the Shrine to Music Museum, is both the earliest known extant French grand piano, and perhaps the last known example of a piano action
based directly on the Cristofori second design.
A wealth of information regarding impressionism emphasizes the classicism and pudeur of Ravel's music and the impact of the new double-escapement piano action
on his virtuosic style.
In this context, the early piano action
design of Cristofori provides an interesting example.
I found some of the photo illustrations to be too small to see details adequately; for example, on page 84, the very small parts within a piano action
are not clearly visible.
To more clearly explain Liszt's impact on the industry of piano manufacturers, she provides figures of different piano actions
and excerpts from Liszt's music featuring his unconventional articulations and expressive markings (pp.
Almost all of the piano actions
were imported from Germany - reckoned to be the best makers.
However, it shares many of the same uses as hard maple, including: flooring, furniture, interior joinery, piano actions
, dairy and laundry equipment, turnery and architectural uses such as paneling.
The CS10 features the Grand Feel action, an action that provides extra-long wooden keys and a mechanical design closely emulating that of Kawai's grand piano actions
Its other uses include paneling, textile machinery rollers, musical instruments, piano actions
, butcher block, sporting goods and dairy equipment.
ABS-Carbon parts are lighter without sacrificing strength, which produces an action that is faster and more stable than conventional piano actions