However, we do observe directionally higher LSPI frequency for the overbased calcium sulfonate/low base calcium phenate
detergent system indicating the increased tendency for this detergent combination to generate LSPI under the conditions investigated.
The decrease of the 145 ppm peak indicates the transformation to phenate
ions of the phenolic C3' and C4' hydroxygroups on the flavonoid B-ring, implying a considerable increase in its condensation reactivity, but particularly a changed shift due to substitutions on the normally free sites on the B-ring.
Special Properties Resistance to organic debris Excellent Effect of hard water None Detrimental effect of heat No Residual activity Yes Most effective pH range Acid Compatibility with anionic Yes surfactants (soaps) Compatibility with nonionic No surfactants Disadvantages (9) Commonly Used Concentrations Disinfecting solution Variable Sanitizing solutions Appropriate Uses E--Equipment CE--Clean Equipment E,P,F P--Premises F--Foot baths Common Brands and Names (12) Cresl-400[R] Environ[R] Laro[R] Lysol[R] Orthophen- ylphenol Sodium or- thophenyl- phenate
Ammonium was determined by phenate
colorimetry and nitrate plus nitrite by Cu-Cd reduction followed by azo dye colorimetry using a Bran Luebbe TRAACS 800 autoanalyzer (American Public Health Association 1992; Bran Luebbe GmbH, Norderstedt, Germany).
Lubrizol 2106 overbased barium phenate
features high barium metal content in liquid form without the use of volatile solvent.
2% sodium phenate
diluted 1:16 in tap water), and rinsed with tap water.
Most detergents used in a heavy-duty diesel engine utilize a calcium carbonate core-structure, that is encapsulated by soap molecules containing sulfonate or phenate
as a polar head group [27, 28, 29].
The solutions looked for should be different from the classic approaches based on detergents such as neutral or over-based sulfonates, phenates
, sulfurized phenate
, salicylates and other oil-soluble carboxylates of a metal, particularly the alkali or alkaline earth metals e.
were determined by the cadmium reduction and phenate
method (Rice et al 2012), respectively, by using an Alpkem Autoanalyzer (OI Analytical, Texas, USA).
Nitrate, nitrite, ammonia and phosphate were determined through methods of cadmium column, colorimetry, phenate
and ascorbic acid, respectively (APHA, 1998).